Methylphenidate is metabolized into ritalinic acid by CES1A1 enzymes in the liver. Dextromethylphenidate is selectively metabolized at a slower rate than levomethylphenidate. 97% of the metabolised drug is excreted in the urine, and between 1 and 3% is excreted in the faeces. A small amount, less than 1%, of the drug is excreted in the urine in its unchanged form.
The concentration of methylphenidate or ritalinic acid, its major metabolite, may be quantified in plasma, serum or whole blood in order to monitor compliance in those receiving the drug therapeutically, to confirm the diagnosis in potential poisoning victims or to assist in the forensic investigation in a case of fatal overdosage.
Ritalin has not been studied in renally-impaired patients. Renal impairment is expected to have minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate since less than 1% of a radiolabeled dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged compound, and the major metabolite (ritalinic acid), has little or no pharmacologic activity.
Ritalin has not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment. Hepatic impairment is expected to have minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate since it is metabolized primarily to ritalinic acid by nonmicrosomal hydrolytic esterases that are widely distributed throughout the body.
Whether it\u2019s the athlete who has become addicted to Ritalin for extra energy or the student who abuses it to stay awake to focus on cramming for exams, stopping Ritalin can present uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms.Of course, the severity of symptoms will depend largely on how long someone has been taking the drug as well as the dosage.Common withdrawal symptoms include:\nDepression\nOutbursts of anger\nFeeling irritated or frustrated\nProblems with sleeping\nThinking that feels \u201cfoggy\u201d or slow\nHeartbeat changes\nA feeling of nausea or upset stomach\nHard to focus and concentrate\nFeeling nervous or anxious\nIncreased appetite\nSudden cravings for foods\nFeeling tired during the day\nLack of motivation\nRe-emergence of ADHD without medication\n"}],"name":"What Are Ritalin Withdrawal Symptoms?"},"@type":"Question","@id":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/withdrawal\/ritalin\/#QuestionsubjectOf_FAQPage_mainEntity1","acceptedAnswer":["@type":"Answer","@id":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/withdrawal\/ritalin\/#QuestionsubjectOf_FAQPage_mainEntity1_acceptedAnswer_Answer","text":"One thing that\u2019s comforting is that you don\u2019t usually face withdrawal symptoms all at once. When withdrawal symptoms begin, they usually come on mildly, then intensify for several days, and then begin to wane. Detoxing may be uncomfortable, but getting through the detox is your ticket to freedom from the addiction. Keep in mind that withdrawal is your body\u2019s way of returning to its natural state.Various factors will affect how long withdrawal symptoms persist as well as the intensity. Some people may have a tough time detoxing from the drug, while others find that it\u2019s not that challenging. Factors influencing withdrawal symptoms are:\nHealth condition\nDosage\nLength of time using Ritalin\nSocial support\nEnvironment\nLevel of tolerance\nFrequency of use\nDietary habits\nPolysubstance use\nHow fast one tapers off the drug\nIn the first 72 hours, you are likely to feel some sadness and anxiety. You may also feel tired, as your body is used to having a stimulant. Other withdrawal symptoms may include cravings for the drug, sleep disruption, heartbeat irregularity, nausea, and irritability.Some withdrawal symptoms may intensify during days four through seven, and some may decrease. Common symptoms during this stage include depression, exhaustion, anxiety, increased appetite, and mood swings. Of course, the level of intensity will depend on some of the factors mentioned above.The physical withdrawal symptoms will decrease in intensity during weeks three and four. Some will be completely gone. By week three, the cravings normally ease up entirely. Some people continue to struggle with sleep difficulties at this stage. Not sleeping well can be quite frustrating, and it may affect how you feel emotionally. Do keep in mind you are removing a powerful stimulant from your body that has changed your brain\u2019s chemistry. Your body is now reacting by trying to now re-regulate your sleep without the Ritalin, but it takes time. By the end of week three or four, you should be feeling back to normal.Also, bear in mind that the time frame for withdrawing from Ritalin can vary for each person depending on various factors unique to the individual. However, it is essential to go through the detox stage to overcome addiction. In the grand scheme of life, a short period of detox is well worth the freedom one gains for the future."],"name":"What Are the Stages of the Ritalin Withdrawal Timeline?","@type":"Question","@id":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/withdrawal\/ritalin\/#QuestionsubjectOf_FAQPage_mainEntity2","acceptedAnswer":["@type":"Answer","@id":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/withdrawal\/ritalin\/#QuestionsubjectOf_FAQPage_mainEntity2_acceptedAnswer_Answer","text":"Detoxing from Ritalin will surely boost your overall mental and physical health. Quitting Ritalin cold turkey is not recommended, as the severity of withdrawal symptoms may present challenges.Instead, a gradual taper with medical monitoring is recommended. When your withdrawal symptoms are managed, and you receive support from addiction specialists, the likelihood of relapse decreases greatly."],"name":"Why Should I Detox?","@type":"Question","@id":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/withdrawal\/ritalin\/#QuestionsubjectOf_FAQPage_mainEntity3","acceptedAnswer":["@type":"Answer","@id":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/withdrawal\/ritalin\/#QuestionsubjectOf_FAQPage_mainEntity3_acceptedAnswer_Answer","text":"Once the initial detox phase has been completed, a comprehensive treatment program is recommended. It\u2019s not enough just to detox from a drug. There are usually some underlying issues to contend with, as well as the need to learn valuable life and relapse prevention skills. At the same time, if disorders like ADHD are present, reviewing alternative treatment options can be helpful.This is where addiction treatment centers come into play. At an inpatient treatment center, substance abuse professionals will be there for you around the clock to ensure that you have continued recovery success. Oftentimes, there are underlying psychological issues that need to be addressed when it comes to addiction. At a treatment facility, you\u2019ll have trained counselors at your fingertips to help you sort out any issues you may be having, as well as help you to create a relapse prevention plan.If you cannot leave your home to attend an inpatient center, there are outpatient centers where you can attend a certain number of sessions per week. This works well for those who are employed and cannot get away from work or have children to care for.Regardless of whether you attend an inpatient or outpatient center, you\u2019ll be gaining valuable tools for recovery. You\u2019ll be able to meet with a therapist, work on any emotional or behavioral issues you may be having, connect with peers at support groups, and learn a lot about yourself. It can truly be a time of personal growth that can change the course of your life journey.Today you have the opportunity to make new choices. If you\u2019re ready to address an addiction to Ritalin, then let today be the day you reach out for help. You do not have to face Ritalin withdrawal symptoms alone. Know that you\u2019re not alone."],"name":"What Is the Next Treatment Step?"]}],"author":["@type":"Person","@id":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/withdrawal\/ritalin\/#Article_MedicalWebPage_author_Person","name":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/author\/dominica-applegate\/","url":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/author\/dominica-applegate\/","image":["@type":"ImageObject","@id":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/withdrawal\/ritalin\/#Article_MedicalWebPage_author_Person_image_ImageObject","url":"https:\/\/secure.gravatar.com\/avatar\/d418fa79abba515190ae4409c8503407?s=80&d=mm&r=g"],"description":" "],"about":"Ritalin Withdrawal","description":"Getting off Ritalin usually means having to go through uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms. Learn more about Ritalin withdrawal.","publisher":["@type":"Organization","@id":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/withdrawal\/ritalin\/#Article_MedicalWebPage_publisher_Organization","name":"Family Recovery Specialists","logo":["@type":"ImageObject","@id":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/withdrawal\/ritalin\/#Article_MedicalWebPage_publisher_Organization_logo_ImageObject","url":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/cdn-cgi\/mirage\/8853d62aa4367b3c4ec11ff12b4f8853b0c2a03131c594c1f51df1b4d80ed1df\/1280\/https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/app\/uploads\/2020\/01\/FRS_Color52pxH.png"],"address":["@type":"PostalAddress","@id":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/withdrawal\/ritalin\/#Article_MedicalWebPage_publisher_Organization_address_PostalAddress","postalCode":33173,"addressRegion":"FL ","addressLocality":"\nMiami","streetAddress":"9350 Sunset Dr #175"],"url":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/","telephone":"+18552510493"],"reviewedBy":["@type":"Person","@id":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/withdrawal\/ritalin\/#Article_MedicalWebPage_reviewedBy_Person","image":["@type":"ImageObject","@id":"https:\/\/familyrecoveryspecialists.com\/withdrawal\/ritalin\/#Article_MedicalWebPage_reviewedBy_Person_image_ImageObject","url":"https:\/\/secure.gravatar.com\/avatar\/3bd9564b8abe029657a9e5f065aaade7?s=80&d=mm&r=g"],"ur